It consists in adapting a video—previously created by means of image recording or synthesis techniques such as 3D renderings—to a specific surface, such as a facade, a cardboard cube or a face.
This video might possibly be the first projection mapping created using modern mapping techniques:
In the video we can see how the author uses the corner pin technique and adapts the video’s four corners to the four corners of the chosen surface. In this way, the characteristic optical effect of mapping is achieved: the video seems to be part of the surface, or the surface seems to be a flat screen on which a video is played.
We can make this technique as complex as we want. In this project, for example, we used the projection mapping technique to simulate that the 1,500 circular containers were illuminated to form a single screen that showed information about our project for the Spanish Pavilion at World Expo 2012.
In this case, the precision in the mapping of the cans or water containers is essential to obtain a good result.
But the projection mapping technique can be applied onto any surface we can imagine, provided that we have the appropriate equipment for it.
In this project created for Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura, we mapped a cylinder and a table. Several drawing sheets on the table were also mapped to simulate actual drawings that were created and erased. In addition, in this piece we added effects to the cylinder that simulated the assembly and disassembly of walls, bookshelves and whole facades.
On the other hand, video projection mapping can be used even on building facades. These facades can be relatively small, like, for example, the 20-meter long by 8-meter high facade on which our work for A-cero arquitectos was projected.
But it is also possible to project video mappings onto facades of up to 100 meters in length, as we did in the piece we created for Guimarães European Capital of Culture.